|I) Conquest of Bakhtiar Khilji: The Turk – Afghan rule|
In AD 1201 the Turkish
General Ikhtiar-ud-Din Bin Bakhtiar Khilji wrested Nadia from Lakshmana Sena,
the last of the great Sena kings. The old king left for the Eastern Bengal.
This event sowed the seeds of the Turk – Afghan rule in Bengal.
|II) The Independent Sultanate of Gour|
This district was under the
Turk-Afghan rule from their early days.
|III) The Afghan Era|
Sher Shah established Afghan
rule in Bengal by killing Mahmud Shah in 1538 and occupying the throne. Sher
Shah later proceeded to become the emperor of India by defeating the Mughal
|IV) The Mughal Era|
Different Afghan rulers
continued until Dayud Khan, the last Afghan Sultan of Bengal was defeated
and killed by
the Mughals. But it took some 20 more years before the Mughals could establish their reign well in Bengal.
|V) The Nawabs of Bengal|
Murshid Quli Khan
(1706-1725 AD), the
first of the Nawabs, became the Subedar of Bengal in 1717; he reigned over
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from his capital Murshidabad (Moor-shi-da-bad)
with only a nominal
allegiance to the Mughal Emperor. He also opened a mint and
introduced the "Zurbe Murshidabad" coin. He secured the imperial
title of "Motamul-ul-Mulk Alauddowla Jaffer Khan Noseri Nasir Jang (
Guardian of the country, promoter of the State, Helper in War, the Defender
)". Murshid Quli Khan had built the magnificent
After his death in 1725 AD he was buried below the steps of the Katra Masjid.
Sarafraz Khan (1739-1740 AD) was a man of valour and of religion temperament. He received the imperial title of "Motamul-ul-Mulk, Alauddowla, Hyder Jang ( Guardian of the country, promoter of the State, Lion in War )". His short career ended in 1740 AD only after 13 months of reign when he was defeated at the battle of Giria on 9th April 1740 AD by Alivardi Khan.
after the death of Saif-ud-Doula Mubarak-ud-Doula another son of Mir-Jafar ascended the throne at the age of 17 only. He died in 1793 AD and was succeeded by his son Babar-Ali who reigned till 1810 AD. He received the imperial title of "Nasir-ul-Mulk, Azud-ud-Daulla, Delar Jang ( Helper of the Country, Arrow of the State, Brave in War )". after Babar-Ali his eldest son Zainuddin Ali Khan, known as Ali Jah became the nawab. On 6th August 1821 Ali-Jah died after prolonged illness. Syud Ahmed Ali Khan, known as Wala Jah, second son of Babar Ali, succeeded the Throne on the death of his brother, Ali Jah, in 1821 AD.
Humayun Jah (1824-1838 AD) : Mubarak Ali Khan, better known as Humayun Jah, ascended the Throne of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa after the death of his father, Wala Jah, in 1824 AD. He received the imperial title of "Shuja-ul-Mulk, Ihtisham-ud-Daulla, Humayun Jah, Feroze Jang ( Hero of the Country, Dignifier of the Country, of auspicious rank, Victor in War )". The present Palace of Hazarduari was erected during his reign, and miniature of it in ivory, prepared by Sagore Mistri, together with portraits of His Highness and his son and other presents were sent to King William IV, who honored the Nawab with the present full size portrait of His Majesty and an autograph latter and conferred upon him the badge and insignia of the Royal Guelphic and Hanoverian order, still preserved in the Palace. Humayun Jah died on the 3rd October, 1838 AD, leaving behind him his son, Mansur Ali Khan alias Feradun Jah and his Daughter Sultana Ghetiara Begam.
(1838-1881 AD): Syud Mansur Ali
Khan, known as Feradun Jah, succeeded his father, Humayun Jah, while
yet a minor and only eight years old, on 1838 AD. Feradun Jah founded the
Nizamat School and the Nizamat College, now known as the Nawabs high School
and the Nawabs Madrassa, respectively. He died on the 5th of November,
1884 AD. Nawab Ali Kadr Syud
Meerza Bahadur who succeeded his
father, Feradun Jah, the last Nawab Nazim of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, on
his retirement in 1880 AD, was born on the 25th of August 1846 AD.
|VI) The British Era|
In 1765 the East India
Company obtained the Dewani of Sube Bangla from the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam.
From now on the Nawabs remained as mere pensioners of the British.